Thursday, September 6, 2012



9. Soul, Matter, Medium of motion, Medium of rest, space, (substances) having dimensions, and Time, together with their various attributes and modifications are said to be the principles (Tattvartha).
10. Soul is characterized by Upayoga. Upayoga is towards Darsana of Jnana- Upayoga is of two kinds, Swabhava Jnana or Vibhava Jnana.
11-12. Natural knowledge (is) perfect, unassisted by sense and independent. Non-natural knowledge is of two kinds. Right knowledge of four kinds :- Sensitive knowledge (Mati Jnâna) Scripture knowledge (Shruta Jnâna) Visual knowledge (Avadhi Jnâna) and Mental knowledge (Mana-paryaya Jnâna), and Wrong knowledge of three kinds, beginning with sensitive knowledge.
13. And conation attentiveness (is) of two kinds (i. e.,) natural (Svabhâva Darshana), and the opposite of its kind, non-natural (Vibhâva Darshana). That which is perfect, unassisted by senses and independent, is called Natural.
14. Non-natural conation is said to be of three kinds : Ocular (Chakshu Darshana). Non-ocular (Achakshu Darshana) and visual (Avadhi Darshana). Modification (is) or two kinds, irrelative (natural, Svabhâva Paryâya) and relative to itself and others (i. e., Non-natural, Vibhâva paryâya).
15. Human, Hellish, Sub-human and Celestial conditions are said to be Non-natural conditions free from miseries arising from the effect of Karmas are termed Natural.
 16-17. Human souls are of two ; born in Work region or in Enjoyment region. Hellish souls should be known to be of seven kinds, because of the regions. Sub-human souls are said to be of fourteen kinds. Celestial souls (are) of four kinds. Their detailed account should be known from (the scripture) Loka-Vibhâga.
18. From the practical point of view, a mundane soul causes material Karmas and experiences; but from the (impure) real point of view the soul creates (and) experiences thought- activites arising through the Karmas.
19. From the substance point of view (all) souls are free from the modifications mentioned before; but from the modification point of view souls are possessed of both ( the Natural and Non- Natural).


20. The substance matter is of two kinds; in the form of an atom (Parmanu) and in the form of molecules (Skandha). And the molecules are of six kinds and atom (is) of two kinds.
21-24. Gross-gross, gross, gross-fine, fine-gross, fine, and fine-fine are the six kinds. Solids like earth, stone, consist of gross- gross molecules (Liquids) like ghee, water, oil are gross. Shade, sunshine, etc., consist of gross-fine molecules. Objects of the four senses (of touch, taste, smell and hearing) are of fine- gross molecules. Karmic molecules, in the condition of being bound up with soul are fine. Those which are unlike these are of fine-fine molecules.
25. That which is the cause of the four root matters (earth, water, fire and air) should be known as cause-atom. (Karana Parmanu). The Smallest possible part of a molecule should be known as effect as,
26. That substance which (is) the beginning, the middle and the end by itself, inapprehensible by the senses, and (is) indivisible, should be known as an atom.
 27. That which possesses one taste, color, and smell, and two touches is of natural attributes. Those tangible to all (Senses) are in Jain Philosophy said to be of non-natural attributes.
 28. The modification which is independent of other objects is the natural modification (Svabhava Pryaya); and modification in the molecular form is the non-natural modification, (Vibhava Pryaya).
 29. From the real point of view an atom is said to be "Matter substance"; but from the other (i.e., practical point of view) the "Matter substance" has been applied to a molecule.
30. The auxiliary causes of motion and rest to soul and matter (are called) the medium of motion, and medium of rest (respectively). (That which is the auxiliary cause of) filing space to all the substances, soul, etc. (is) space.
31. Practical time is either of two kinds, instant and wink (avali); or of three kinds (past, present and future). Past (time is) equal to the number (of the liberated souls) who have destroyed their bodily forms, multiplied by numerable winks.(Om (Karya Parmanu) deification).
32. The instants of the practical time are infinite times (of the number of) atoms, which again are infinite times (of the number of) souls. (Time-points) which are packed full in the universe, are (called) the real "Time".
 33. That by the help of which, all substances, soul, etc., are altered in their own modification, is "Time." The four substance; the medium of motion, (the medium of rest, space and time) have (only) their own natural attributes and modifications.
34. Excepting Time, (the other five) of these six substances, (are known) as "Extensive substances," (Astikaya). Extensive substances occupy many spatial units, as mentioned in Jaina scriptures.
35-36. The atoms of matter are numerable, innumerable and infinite. Verily there are innumerable points of space in "medium of motion," “medium of rest" and in each individual soul. The same (innumerable number of spatial units are) in the universe; and in the other, i.e., (non-universe) (there are) infinite (number of spatial units). There is no extensiveness in Time; therefore, it has one spatial unit (only).
 37. The matter substance (is) material; all the rest are immaterial. Soul (has) consciousness as its nature, all the rest are devoid of the attribute of consciousness. 


38. The external principles, soul, etc., should be renounced. One's own soul, absolutely free from all the attributes and modifications, caused by the impurity of Karmas should be realized.
 39. (From the real point of view), there are in the soul, no stages of (impure) thought-activities Vibhava Svabhava Sthan, neither there are there degrees of regard and disregard, nor grades of feelings of pleasure, nor degrees of the feelings of pain.
40. In soul, there are no stages of duration bondage, (Sthiti Bandha Sthana); neither (there are) the stages of Karmic nature (Prakriti Sthana); nor (are) the degrees of the molecular bondage (Pradesha Sthana) nor are the grades of fruition (bondage) (Anubhaga Sthana), nor are the degrees of operation of Karmas (Udaya Sthana).
41. (In soul there are) neither the stages of destructive thought-activities, (Kshayaka Bhava), nor the degree of destructive subsidential thought-activities (Kshaya-Opashamic Bhava), nor the grades of operative thought activities (Audayika Bhava), nor the degrees of subsidential thought activities (Aupashaika Bhava).
42. In soul (there is) neither wandering in the four conditions of life (gati), nor (are there) birth, old age, death, disease, and sorrow, nor are there the stages of bodily materials is (Kula), nuclei (yoni), soul-classes (Jiva Samasa) and soul quests (Margana).
43. Soul (is) turmoil less, bodiless, fearless, independent and faultless; without attachment, free from the activities (of mind, body and speech), devoid of delusion and free from ignorance.
 44. Soul (is) possession less, free from attachment, blemish less, devoid of all defects, desire less, anger less, pride less (and) without lust.
45. Colour, taste, smell, touch, conditions of, female, male, and common-sex inclinations, etc., (six kinds of bodily), figures, (and six kinds of) skeletons; all these are not found in the soul.
46. Know the soul to be, devoid of taste, colour and smell, not cognizable (by the senses), possessed of the attribute of consciousness soundless, incomprehensible by any outward sign and one having no describable form.
47. Just as liberated souls (are) free from oldness, death and birth, and are crowned with the eight attributes; so (are) mundane souls (from the pure real point of view.)
48. Just as liberated souls, residing at the top-most of the universe are bodiless, indestructible, independent of senses, free from (karmic) filth, and pure, so the mundane souls (also) should be considered (from the pure real point of view.)
49. From the practical point of view, all mundane souls have been described as possessing all the aforesaid conditions; but from the pure, real point of view, they also (are) of the same nature as liberated soul.
50. All the aforesaid conditions relate to either foreign substance or foreign modifications; hence (they) should be renounced. Internal principle is one's own substance, i, e., and soul. (It only) should be realised.
51. Conviction (in things ascertained as they are) alone without (any) perverse motive (is) right belief, (Samyaka Darshana). (Knowledge) free from doubt, (Samshaya), perversity (Vimoha) and vacillation (vibhrama) is right knowledge (Samyak Jnana).
52. Conviction, from wavering, impurity (Mala), and non-steadfastness (Agarha) alone (is) right belief. Correct understanding (Adhigama) of what principles are worth renouncing and what are worth realizing, (is) right knowledge.
 53. The external causes of right belief are the Jain scriptures and the persons, who know them; while the destruction, etc., of right-belief-deluding Karma are said to be the internal causes.
54. Listen, (Just as) Right Belief and Right knowledge are the (causes of) liberation, (so) is Right Conduct. Therefore, I shall describe Right Conduct from (both) the real and the practical points of view. 55. Right conduct from the practical point of view, is to practice austerities from the practical stand-point, while Right Conduct from the real point of view is to observe austerities from the real stand-point.


56. Thought-activity free from (all) undertakings (injurious to any of) the mundane souls (which are) known as existing in (any of the various) physiques, nuclei, soul-classes, soul-quests, etc., is the first vow (non-injury), Ahimsa.
57. A saint, who renounces thought-activity leading to telling falsehood, on account of delusion, attachment and aversion is (said) to observe always the second vow, (truth), Satya.
58. He, who renounces the thought-activity of picking up articles belonging to another, lying in a village, a town or a forest, (is said) to observe the third vow (non-stealing), Achaurya.
59. He, who having seen the beauty of a woman, is not moved by a desire for her; or whose thought-activity is free from sex-animate feeling, (is said to observe) the fourth vow (chastity), Brahmacharya. 
60. The carrier of the load of (right) conduct, i.e., a saint, who having first formed the idea of being unconcerned with all worldly attachments, renounces them is said to observe the fifth vow of possessional, (Parigraha Tyaga.)
61. A saint, who walks upon a trodden path, free from living beings, in day time, after seeing (carefully) a distance of four arms length (two yards), (is said) to observe carefulness in walking (Irya Samiti).
62. He, who renounced backbiting, ridiculing, talking ill of others, self-praising and harsh words, speaks what.
63. He, who calmly takes food  which is free from living-beings, and given by another (with devotion), is said to have carefulness in eating (Eshana Samiti).
64. (A saint who has) acted with care in picking up, and putting down, books, and jug (Kamandala), etc., is said to have carefulness in lifting and laying down, (Adana-nik shepana Samiti).
65. (A saint who) discharges his waste, etc., in a place which is secret, and free from all living beings, and where is no obstruction on behalf of any body, (is said) to have carefulness in wasting (pratishtha-pana Samiti). 
66. Renunciation of delusion, animate-feeling, attachment and aversion, and other impure thought activities, is from the practical point of view, called control of mind (Mano-gupti).
 67. Renunciation of censurable gossip relating to people, state, theft, food, etc., which cause the bondage of evil Karmas, or refraining from telling falsehoods, etc., (is called) control of speech, (Vachan-gupti).
68. Renunciation of bodily movements, such as binding, piercing, beating, contracting, expanding, etc., is called control of body (Kaya-gupti).
 69. (From the real point of view) know, that abstaining from attachment, etc., is control of mind; and freedom from falsehood, etc., or silence is control of speech. is good for himself as well as for others (is said) to have carefulness in speech (Bhasha Samiti).
 70. (From the real point of view) refraining from bodily movements, non-attachment to the body, restraint of body or renunciation of causing injury, etc., is called control of body.
71. Worshipful Lords (Arhats) are those who are entirely free from all the (four) destructive Karmas, and are possessed of the highest attributes, omniscience, etc., and are crowned with the thirty-four extraordinary glories, (Atishaya).
72. Those (souls), who have destroyed the bondage of the eight Karmas, are possessed of the eight great attributes, abide at the topmost of the universe and are the most exalted and indestructible, are Perfect Souls (Siddhas.)
73. Those (saints), who are possessed of five kinds of conduct, who have trampled down the fury of the elephant of five senses, who are firm in their determination, and who are profound in virtue are (called) Heads of the order of Saints, (Acharya).
74. Those (saints), who are brave, possessed of the three jewels, are preachers of the categories enunciated by the Conqueror (Jina), and are endowed with the thought activity of desirelessness, are (known) as the Preceptors (Upadhyaya).
75. Those that are free from all (worldly) occupations, are always deeply absorbed in four kinds of contemplation (Aradhana) and are possession less and delusion less are (said) to be the Saints (Sadhus).
76. From the practical point of view, (all the previously mentioned) meditations constitute Right conduct; that (which is known) as Right conduct from the real point of view will be described further on.


77. I am neither in any of the Soul-quests, nor I am in any of the Spiritual stages, nor do I belong to any of the soul classes. I am neither the doer, nor do I make others do, nor am I the approver of the doers.
78. I am neither hellish, nor sub-human, nor human, nor am I in the celestial condition. I am neither the doer, nor do I make others do, nor am I the approver of the doers.
79. I am neither a child, nor young, nor old, nor the cause of any of them. I am neither the doer, nor do I make others do, nor am I the approver of the doers.
80. I am neither attachment, nor aversion, nor delusion, nor the cause of any of them. I am neither the doer, nor do I make others do, nor am I the approver of the doers. 81. I am neither anger, nor pride, nor deceit, nor greed. I am neither the doer, nor do I make others do, nor am I the approver of the doers.
82. By practicing self-analysis, (a soul) becomes equations and thus (gains) Right Conduct. In order to fortify this (conduct) I shall speak of repentance, etc.
83. He, who leaving aside (all) forms of speech, and getting rid of (impure) thought-activities, such as attachment, etc., meditates upon his own soul (is said from the real point of view) to have repentance (Pratikramana).
84. He, who avoiding (all sorts of) transgressions particularly, is observed in self-contemplation is said to have repentance; because he himself is the embodiment of repentance.
 85. He, who avoiding (all sorts of) disinclination towards conduct, is absorbed in self-conduct, is said to have repentance, because he himself is the embodiment of repentance.
 86. He, who avoiding the wrong path, firmly walks in the right path of the Conquerors (Jainas) is said to have repentance because he himself is the embodiment of repentance.
87. A saint, who avoiding all thorny thought-activities enjoys the modifications of only an unblemished thought-activity, is said to have repentance; because he himself is the embodiment of repentance.
88. A saint, who avoiding uncontrolled thought-activities is absorbed in the three-fold (of mind, body and spirit.
89. He, who avoids (both) the thoughts of pain and ill-will, and entertains righteous and pure thoughts, is said to have repentance in the aphorism delivered by the Conquerors (Jinas).
90. (Impure) thought-activities, (such as) wrong belief, etc., have been experienced before since eternity, by a mundane soul, (but) pure thought-activities such as right belief, etc., have never been experienced by this soul.
91. He, who having completely renounced Wrong Belief, Wrong Knowledge and Wrong Conduct, mediates upon Right Belief, Right Knowledge and Right Conduct (is said to have) repentance.
92. Soul is a supreme category, Saints absorbed in it destroy the Karmas; therefore self- concentration only is the repentance of the highest order.
93. A saint absorbed in self-concentration, renounces all defects. Therefore self-concentration only constitutes the repentance of all transgressions.
94. He, who having understood the modes of repentance, as related in the scriptures known by the name of "Pratikramana Sutra" meditates upon it, is then said to have repentance (from the practical point of view). Each is said to have repentance; because he himself is the embodiment of repentance.

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